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Classificazione dei batteri

 

Descrizione

Classificazione dei batteri secondo il Bergey's Manual [Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 1st edition. 4 vols. (1984)]:

  1. Gram-negative Bacteria of medical and commercial importance: (1984): Spirochetes, spiral and curved, aerobic and facultatively aerobic rods, obligate anaerobes, aerobic and anaerobic cocci, sulfate and sulfur-reducing, rickettsias, clamydias, mycoplasmas;

  2. Gram-positive Bacteria of medical and commercial importance: (1986): Cocci, endospore-forming and nonsporing rods, mycobacteria, nonfilamentous actinomycetes.

 

Dominio Procaryotae

Divisioni:

  1. Gracilicutes: Procaryotes with thin cell walls, implying a gram-negative type cell wall;

  2. Firmicutes: Procaryotes with thick and strong skin, indicating a gram-positive type cell wall;

  3. Tenericutes: Procaryotes of a pliable and soft nature, indicating the lack of a rigid cell wall;

  4. Mendosicutes: Procaryotes that lack conventional peptidoglycan (archaeobacteria).

 

*) Spirochetes:

1) Spirochaetales:

a) Spirochaetaceae:

- Borrelia,

- Cristispira,

- Spirochaeta,

- Treponema.

b) Leptospiraceae:

- Leptospira.

2) Other: Hindgut Spirochetes of Termites and Cryptocercus punctulatus (wood-eating cockroach).

 

*) Aerobic/Microaerophilic, Motile, Helical/Vibrioid Gram-Negative Bacteria:

- Alteromonas,

- Aquaspirillum,

- Azospirillum,

- Bdellovibrio,

- Campylobacter,

- Cellvibrio,

- Halovibrio,

- Helicobacter,

- Herbaspirillum,

- Marinomonas,

- Micavibrio,

- Oceanospirillum,

- Spirillum,

- Sporospirillum,

- Vampirovibrio.

 

*) Nonmotile (or rarely), Gram-Negative Curved Bacteria:

1) Spirosomaceae:

- Flectobacillus,

- Runella,

- Spirosoma.

2) Other Genera:

- Ancyclobacter,

- Brachyarcus,

- Cyclobacterium,

- Meniscus,

- Microcyclus,

- Pelosigma.

 

*) Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci:

1) Pseudomonadaceae:

- Frateuria,

- Pseudomonas,

- Xanthomonas,

- Zooglea.

2) Azotobacteriaceae:

- Azomonas,

- Azotobacter.

3) Rhizobiaceae:

- Agrobacterium,

- Bradyrhizobium,

- Phyllobacterium,

- Rhizobium.

4) Methylococcaceae:

- Methylococcus,

- Methylomonas.

5) Acetobacteraceae:

- Acetobacter,

- Gluconobacter.

6) Halobacteriaceae:

- Halobacterium,

- Halococcus.

7) Legionellaceae:

- Legionella.

8) Neisseriaceae:

- Acinetobacter Kingella,

- Moraxella,

- Neisseria.

9) Other Genera:

- Acidiphilium,

- Acidomonas,

- Acidothermus,

- Afipia,

- Agromonas,

- Alcaligenes,

- Alteromonas,

- Aminobacter,

- Aquaspirillum,

- Azorhizobium,

- Beijerinckia,

- Bordetella,

- Brucella,

- Chromohalobacter,

- Chryseomonas,

- Comoamonas,

- Cupriavidas,

- Deleya,

- Derxia,

- Ensifer,

- Erythrobacter,

- Flavimonas,

- Flavobacterium,

- Francisella,

- Halomonas,

- Hydrogenophaga,

- Janthinobacterium,

- Lampropedia,

- Marinobacter,

- Marinomonas,

- Mesophilobacter,

- Methylobacillus,

- Methylobacterium,

- Methylophaga,

- Methylophilus,

- Methylovorus,

- Morococcus,

- Oceanospirillum,

- Oligella,

- Paracoccus,

- Phenylobacterium,

- Psychrobacter,

- Rhizobacter,

- Roseobacter,

- Rugamonas,

- Serpens,

- Sinorhizobium,

- Sphingobacterium,

- Thermoleophilum,

- Thermomicrobium,

- Thermus,

- Variovorax,

- Volcaniella,

- Weeksella,

- Xanthobacter,

- Xylella,

- Xylophilus,

- Zoogloea.

 

*) Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods:

1) Enterobacteriaceae:

- Arsenophonus,

- Budvicia,

- Buttiauxella,

- Cedecea,

- Citrobacter,

- Edwardsiella,

- Enterobacter,

- Erwinia,

- Escherichia,

- Ewingella,

- Hafnia,

- Klebsiella,

- Kluyvera,

- Leclercia,

- Leminorella,

- Moellerella,

- Morganella,

- Obesumbacterium,

- Pantoea,

- Pragia,

- Proteus,

- Providencia,

- Rahnella,

- Salmonella,

- Serratia,

- Shigella,

- Tatumella,

- Xenorhabdus,

- Yersinia,

- Yokenella.

2) Vibrionaceae:

- Aeromonas,

- Enhydrobacter,

- Photobacterium,

- Plesiomonas,

- Vibrio.

3) Pasturellaceae:

- Actinobacillus,

- Haemophilus,

- Pasteurella.

4) Other Genera:

- Calymmatobacterium,

- Cardiobacterium,

- Cedecea,

- Eikenella,

- Gardnerella (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

- Kluyvera,

- Obesumbacterium,

- Rahnella,

- Streptobacillus,

- Tatumella,

- Xenorhabdus,

- Chromobacterium,

- Zymomonas.

 

*) Gram-Negative Anaerobic, Straight, Curved, and Helical Rods:

1) Bacteroidaceae:

- Acetivibrio,

- Acetoanaerobium,

- Acetofilamentum,

- Acetogenium,

- Acetomicrobium,

- Acetothermus,

- Acidaminobacter,

- Anaerobiospirillum,

- Anaerorhabdus,

- Anaerovibrio,

- Bacteroides,

- Butyrivibrio (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

- Centipeda,

- Fervidobacterium,

- Fibrobacter,

- Fusobacterium,

- Haloanaerobium,

- Halobacteroides,

- Ilyobacter,

- Lachnospira (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

- Leptotrichia,

- Malonomonas,

- Megamonas,

- Mitsuokella,

- Oxalobacter,

- Pectinatus,

- Pelobacter,

- Porphyromonas,

- Prevotella,

- Propionigenium,

- Propionispira,

- Rikenella,

- Roseburia,

- Ruminobacter,

- Sebaldella,

- Selenomonas,

- Sporomusa,

- Succinimonas,

- Succinivibrio,

- Syntrophobacter,

- Syntrophosmonas,

- Thermobacteroides,

- Thermospipho,

- Thermotoga,

- Tissierella,

- Wolinella,

- Zymophilus.

2) Dissimulatory Sulfate- or Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria:

- Desulfobacter,

- Desulfobacterium,

- Desulfobulbus,

- Desulfococcus,

- Desulfomicrobium,

- Desulfomonas,

- Desulfomonile,

- Desulfonema,

- Desulfosarcina,

- Desulfotomaculum (also endospore-forming),

- Desulfovibrio,

- Desulfurella,

- Desulfuromonas,

- Thermodesulfobacterium.

3) Anaerobic Gram-Negaitve Cocci:

a) Veillonellaceae:

- Acidaminococcus,

- Megasphaera,

- Syntrophococcus,

- Veillonella.

 

*) Rickettsias and Chlamydias:

1) Rickettsiales:

a) Rickettsiaceae:

- Cowdria,

- Coxiella,

- Ehrlichia,

- Neorickettsia,

- Rickettsia,

- Rickettsiella,

- Rochalimaea,

- Wolbachia,

b) Bartonellaceae:

- Bartonella,

- Grahamella.

c) Anaplasmataceae:

- Aegyptianella,

- Anaplasma,

- Eperythrozoon,

- Haemobartonella.

2) Chlamydiales:

a) Chlamydiaceae:

- Chlamydia.

 

*) Mycoplasmas:

1) Mycoplasmataceae:

- Mycoplasma,

- Ureaplasma.

2) Acholeplasmataceae:

- Acholeplasma.

3) Spiroplasmataceae:

- Spiroplasma.

4) Other Genera:

- Anaeroplasma,

- Asteroleplasma,

- Thermoplasma.

 

*) Endosymbionts:

1) Endosymbionts of Protozoa:

- Caedibacter,

- Holospora,

- Lyticum,

- Pseudocaedibacter,

- Tectibacter.

2) Endosymbionts of Insects (blood sucking, plant sap-sucking, cellulose and stored grain feeders, and insects feeding on complex diets):

- Blattabacterium.

3) Endosymbionts of Fungi and Invertebrates other than Arthropods (Fungi, Sponges, Coelenterates, Helminthes, Annelids, Marine worms and mollusks)

Endosymbionts of Protozoa, ciliates, flagellates, and amoebas:

- Caedibacter,

- Holospora,

- Lyticum,

- Pseudocaedibacter,

- Tectibacter.

 

*) Gram-Positive Cocci:

1) Aerobic, Catalase-Positive Genera:

- Deinobacter,

- Deinococcus,

- Marinococcus,

- Micrococcus,

- Planococcus,

- Saccharococcus,

- Staphylococcus,

- Stomatococcus.

2) Aerotolerant, Catalase-Negative Genera:

- Aerococcus,

- Enterococcus,

- Gemella,

- Lactococcus,

- Leuconostoc,

- Melissococcus,

- Pediococcus,

- Streptococcus (Pyogenic Hemolytic Streptococci, Oral Streptococci, Enterococci, Lactic Acid Streptococci, Anaerobic Streptococci),

- Trichococcus,

- Vagococcus.

3) Anaerobic, Catalase-Negative Genera:

- Coprococcus,

- Peptococcus,

- Peptostreptococcus,

- Ruminococcus,

- Sarcina.

 

*) Endospore-Forming Gram-Positive Rods and Cocci:

- Amphibacillus,

- Bacillus,

- Clostridium,

- Desulfotomaculum (also dissimilatory sulfate reducer),

- Oscillospira,

- Sporolactobacillus,

- Sporosarcina,

- Sulfidobacillus,

- Syntrophospora.

 

*) Regular, Nonsporing Gram-Positive Rods:

- Brochothrix,

- Carnobacterium,

- Caryophanon,

- Erysipelothrix,

- Kurthia,

- Lactobacillus,

- Listeria,

- Renibacterium.

 

*) Irregular, Nonsporing Gram-Positive Rods:

- Acetobacterium,

- Acetogenium,

- Actinomyces,

- Aeromicrobium,

- Agromyces,

- Arachnia,

- Arcanobacterium,

- Arthrobacter,

- Aureobacterium,

- Bifidobacterium,

- Brachybacterium,

- Brevibacterium,

- Butyrivibrio (has thin, gram-positive walls, but stains as negative),

- Caseobacter,

- Cellulomonas,

- Clavibacter,

- Coriobacterium,

- Corynebacterium,

- Curtobacterium,

- Dermabacter,

- Eubacterium,

- Exigouibacterium,

- Falcivibrio,

- Gardnerella (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

- Jonesia,

- Lachnospira (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

- Microbacterium,

- Mobiluncus,

- Pimelobacter,

- Propionibacterium,

- Rarobacter,

- Rothia,

- Rubrobacter,

- Sphaerobacter,

- Terrabacter,

- Thermoanaerobacter.

 

*) Mycobacteria:

1) Mycobacteriaceae:

- Mycobacterium.

 

*) Nocardioforms:

- Intrasporangium,

- Micropolyspora,

- Nocardia,

- Nocardioides,

- Oerskovia,

- Promicromonospora,

- Pseudonocardia,

- Rhodococcus,

- Saccharopolyspora.

 

*) Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria:

1) Purple Sulfur Bacteria: Internal Sulfur Granules:

a) Chromatiaceae:

- Amoebobacter,

- Chromatium,

- Lamprobacter,

- Lamprocystis,

- Thiocapsa,

- Thiocystis,

- Thiodictyon,

- Thiopedia,

- Thiospirillum.

2) Purple Sulfur Bacteria: External Sulfur Granules:

a) Ectothiorhodospiraceae:

- Ectothiorhodopsin,

- Ectothiorhodospira.

3) Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria:

- Rhodobacter,

- Rhodyclus,

- Rhodomicrobium,

- Rhodopila,

- Rhodopseudomonas,

- Rhodospirillum.

4) Green Nonsulfur Bacteria:

- Heliobacillus,

- Heliobacterium.

5) Green Sulfur Bacteria:

- Anacalochloris,

- Chlorobium,

- Chloroherpeton,

- Pelodictyon,

- Prosthecochloris.

6) Multicellular Filamentous Green Bacteria:

- Chloroflexus,

- Chloronema,

- Heliothrix,

- Oscillochloris.

7) Anaerobic Chemotrophic Bacteria:

- Erythrobacter.

 

*) Oxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria:

1) Cyanobacteria:

a) Chroococcales:

- Chamaespiphon,

- Cyanothece,

- Gloeobacter,

- Gloeocapsa,

- Gloethece,

- Microcystis,

- Myxobaktron,

- Synechococcus,

- Synechocystis.

b) Pleurocapsales:

- Chroococcidiopsis,

- Dermocarpa,

- Dermocarpella,

- Myxosarcina,

- Pleurocapsa,

- Xenococcus.

c) Oscillatoriales:

- Arthrospira,

- Crinalium,

- Lyngbya,

- Microcoleus,

- Oscillatoria,

- Pseudanabaena,

- Spirulina,

- Starria,

- Trichodesmium.

d) Nostocales:

*) Nostocaceae:

- Anabaena,

- Aphanizomenon,

- Cylindrospermum,

- Nodularia,

- Nostoc.

*) Scytonemataceae:

- Scytonema.

*) Rivulariaceae:

- Calothrix.

e) Stigonematales:

- Chlorogloeopsis,

- Fischerella,

- Geitleria,

- Stigonema.

f) Prochlorales:

*) Prochloraceae:

- Prochloron Prochlorothrix.

 

*) Aerobic Chemolithotrophic Bacteria and Associated Organisms:

1) Nitrifying Bacteria:

- Nitrobacteraceae:

2) Nitrate-oxidizing bacteria:

- Nitrobacter,

- Nitrococcus,

- Nitrospina,

- Nitrospira.

3) Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria:

- Nitrosococcus,

- Nitrosolobus,

- Nitrosomonas,

- Nitrosospira,

- Nitrosovibrio.

4) Colorless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria:

- Acidiphilium,

- Macromonas,

- Thermothrix,

- Thiobacillus,

- Thiobacterium,

- Thiodendron,

- Thiomicrospira,

- Thiosphaera,

- Thiospira,

- Thiovulum.

5) Obligate Chemolithotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria:

- Hydrogenobacter,

6) Iron- and Manganese-oxidizing and/or -Depositing Bacteria:

*) Siderocapsaceae:

- Aquaspirillum,

- Bilophococcus,

- Gallionella (both iron-oxidizing and appendaged),

- Leptospirillum,

- Metallogenium,

- Naumaniella,

- Ochrobium,

- Siderocapsa,

- Siderococcus,

- Sulfobacillus.

 

*) Budding (indicated by *) and/or Appendaged Bacteria:

1) Prosthecate Bacteria:

- Ancalomicrobium,

- Asticcacaulus,

- Caulobacter,

- Dichotomicrobium,

- Filomicrobium,

- Hirschia,

- Hyphomicrobium,

- Hyphomonas,

- Labrys,

- Pedomicrobium,

- Prosthecobacter,

- Prosthecomicrobium,

- Stella,

- Verrucomicrobium.

*) Planctomycetales:

- Gemmata,

- Pirelulla.

2) Nonprosthecate Budding Bacteria:

- Angulomicrobium,

- Blastobacter,

- Ensifer,

- Gemmiger,

- Isosphaera,

- Planctomyces.

 

*) Nonbudding Bacteria:

- Asticcacaulis,

- Caulobacter,

- Gallionella,

- Nevskia,

- Prosthecobacter.

 

*) Morphologically Unusual Budding Bacteria (involved in iron and manganese deposition):

- Caulococcus,

- Kuznezovia,

- Metallogenium,

- Seliberia,

- Thiodendron.

 

*) Sheathed Bacteria:

- Clonothrix,

- Crenothrix,

- Haliscominobacter,

- Leptothrix,

- Lieskeela,

- Phragmidiothrix,

- Sphaerotilus.

 

*) Nonphotosynthetic, Nonfruiting Gliding Bacteria:

1) Single-celled, Rod-shaped Gliding Bacteria:

a) Cytophagales:

*) Cytophagaceae:

- Capnocytophaga,

- Chitinophaga,

- Cytophaga,

- Flexibacter,

- Flexithrix,

- Microscilla,

- Sporocytophaga,

- Thermonema.

b) Lysobacterales:

*) Lysobacteriaceae:

- Lysobacter.

2) Flattened, Filamentous Gliding Bacteria:

a) Simonsiellaceae:

- Alysiella,

- Simonsiella.

3) Sulfur-Oxidizing Gliding Bacteria:

a) Beggiatoales:

*) Beggiatoaceae:

- Achromatium,

- Beggiatoa,

- Thioploca,

- Thiospirillopsis,

- Thiothrix.

4) The Pelonemas:

a) Pelonemataceae:

- Achroonema,

- Desmanthus,

- Pelonema,

- Peloploca.

b) Other Genera:

- Agitococcus,

- Desulfonema,

- Herpetosiphon,

- Isosphaera,

- Leucothrix,

- Saprospira,

- Toxothrix,

- Vitreoscilla.

 

*) Gliding, Fruiting Bacteria:

a) Archangiaceae:

- Archangium.

b) Cystobacteraceae:

- Cystobacter,

- Melittangium,

- Stigmatella.

1) Myxococcales:

a) Myxococcaceae:

- Myxococcus.

b) Polyangiaceae:

- Chondromyces,

- Nannocystis,

- Polyangium.

c) Other Genera:

- Angiococcus,

- Corallococcus,

- Haploangium,

- Sorangium.

 

Archaeobacteria (an older term for the Archaea):

*) The Methanogens:

1) Cell Walls With Pseudomurein:

a) Methanobacteriales:

*) Methanobacteriaceae:

- Methanobacterium,

- Methanobrevibacter.

*) Methanothermaceae:

- Methanothermus.

2) Cell Walls Without Pseudomurein:

a) Methanococcales:

*) Methanococcaceae:

- Methanococcus.

*) Methanosarcinaceae:

- Methanolacinia,

- Methanococcoides,

- Methanolobus,

- Methanothrix.

b) Methanomicrobiales:

*) Methanomicrobiaceae:

- Methanomicrobium,

- Methanogenium,

- Methanospirillum.

*) Methanoplanaceae:

- Methanoplanus.

*) Other Genera:

- Methanocorpusculum,

- Methanoculleus,

- Methanohalobium,

- Methanohalophilus,

- Methanosarcina,

- Methanosphaera.

 

*) Archaeal Sulfate Reducers:

1) Archaeoglobales:

a) Archaeoglobaceae:

- Archaeoglobus.

 

*) Extremely Halophilic, Aerobic Archaeobacteria:

1) Halobacteriales:

a) Halobacteriaceae:

- Haloarcula,

- Halobacterium,

- Halococcus,

- Haloferax,

- Natronobacterium,

- Natronococcus.

 

*) Cell Wall-Less Archaeobacteria:

- Thermoplasma.

 

*) Extremely Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic So – Metabolizers:

1) Cocci, Optimum Growth Below pH4:

- Desulfurolobus,

- Metallosphaera,

a) Sulfolobales:

*) Sulfolobaceae:

- Acidianus,

- Sulfolobus.

2) Rods That Use H2 as Energy Source:

- Pyrobaculum.

a) Thermoproteales:

*) Thermoproteaceae:

- Thermofilum,

- Thermoproteus.

3) Cocci or Disc-Shaped That Oxidize H2S:

- Hyperthermus,

- Staphylothermus,

- Thermodiscus.

*) Desulfurococcaceae:

- Desulfurococcus,

- Pyrodictium.

a) Thermococcales:

*) Thermococcaceae:

- Thermococcus,

- Pyrococcus.

 

Actinomycetes:

*) Nocardioform Actinomycetes:

- Actinobispora,

- Actinokineospora,

- Actinopolyspora,

- Amycolata,

- Amycolatopsis,

- Faenia (Micropolyspora),

- Gordona,

- Intrasporangium,

- Jonesia,

- Kibdelosporangium,

- Nocardia,

- Nocardioides,

- Oerskovia,

- Promicromonospora,

- Pseudoamycolata,

- Pseudonocardia,

- Rhodococcus,

- Saccharomonospora,

- Saccharopolyspora,

- Terrabacter,

- Tsukamurella.

 

*) Actinomycetes With Multilocar Sporangia:

- Dermatophilus,

- Frankia,

- Geodermatophilus.

 

*) Actinoplanetes:

- Actinoplanes,

- Ampullariella,

- Catelbatospora,

- Dactylosporangium,

- Micromonospora,

- Pilimelia.

 

*) Streptomyces and Related Genera:

- Intrasporangium,

- Kineosporia,

- Sporichthya,

- Streptomyces,

- Streptoverticillium.

 

*) Maduromycetes:

- Actinomadura,

- Microbispora,

- Microtetraspora,

- Planobispora,

- Planomonospora,

- Spirillospora,

- Streptosporangium.

 

*) Thermomonospora and Related Genera:

- Actinosynnema,

- Nocardiopsis,

- Streptoalloteichus,

- Thermomonospora.

 

*) Thermoactinomycetes:

- Thermoactinomyces.

 

*) Other Actinomycete Genera:

- Glycomyces,

- Kibdelosporangium,

- Kitasatosporia,

- Saccarothrix.

 

Voci correlate

- Microbiologia e Microrganismo;

- Cellula;

- Colorazione di Gram;

- Patologia;

- Malattia;

- Classificazione scientifica;

- Classificazione dei virus;

- Classificazione di Baltimore;

- Classificazione;

 

Tratto da Wikipedia, elaborato e modificato.

 

 

 

 

Kingdom Procaryotae:

Divisions:

  1. Gracilicutes

    Procaryotes with thin cell walls, implying a gram-negative type cell wall
  2. Firmicutes

    Procaryotes with thick and strong skin, indicating a gram-positive type cell wall
  3. Tenericutes

    Procaryotes of a pliable and soft nature, indicating the lack of a rigid cell wall
  4. Mendosicutes

    Procaryotes that lack conventional peptidoglycan (archaeobacteria)
        • Borrelia,
          Cristispira,
          Spirochaeta,
          Treponema.

          Leptospira.

      • Spirochaetaceae:

        Leptospiraceae:

    • Spirochaetales:

      Other: Hindgut Spirochetes of Termites and Cryptocercus punctulatus (wood-eating cockroach).

  • Spirochetes:

      • Alteromonas,
        Aquaspirillum,
        Azospirillum,
        Bdellovibrio,
        Campylobacter,
        Cellvibrio,
        Halovibrio,
        Helicobacter,
        Herbaspirillum,
        Marinomonas,
        Micavibrio,
        Oceanospirillum,
        Spirillum,
        Sporospirillum,
        Vampirovibrio.

  • Aerobic/Microaerophilic, Motile, Helical/Vibrioid Gram-Negative Bacteria:

      • Flectobacillus,
        Runella,
        Spirosoma.

        Ancyclobacter,
        Brachyarcus,
        Cyclobacterium,
        Meniscus,
        Microcyclus,
        Pelosigma.

    • Spirosomaceae:

      Other Genera:

  • Nonmotile (or rarely), Gram-Negative Curved Bacteria:

      • Frateuria,
        Pseudomonas,
        Xanthomonas,
        Zooglea.

        Azomonas,
        Azotobacter.

        Agrobacterium,
        Bradyrhizobium,
        Phyllobacterium,
        Rhizobium.

        Methylococcus,
        Methylomonas.

        Acetobacter,
        Gluconobacter.

        Halobacterium,
        Halococcus,

        Legionella.

        Acinetobacter Kingella,

        Moraxella,
        Neisseria.

        Acidiphilium,
        Acidomonas,
        Acidothermus,
        Afipia,
        Agromonas,
        Alcaligenes,
        Alteromonas,
        Aminobacter,
        Aquaspirillum,
        Azorhizobium,
        Beijerinckia,
        Bordetella,
        Brucella,
        Chromohalobacter,
        Chryseomonas,
        Comoamonas,
        Cupriavidas,
        Deleya,
        Derxia,
        Ensifer,
        Erythrobacter,
        Flavimonas,
        Flavobacterium,
        Francisella,
        Halomonas,
        Hydrogenophaga,
        Janthinobacterium,
        Lampropedia,
        Marinobacter,
        Marinomonas,
        Mesophilobacter,
        Methylobacillus,
        Methylobacterium,
        Methylophaga,
        Methylophilus,
        Methylovorus,
        Morococcus,
        Oceanospirillum,
        Oligella,
        Paracoccus,
        Phenylobacterium,
        Psychrobacter,
        Rhizobacter,
        Roseobacter,
        Rugamonas,
        Serpens,
        Sinorhizobium,
        Sphingobacterium,
        Thermoleophilum,
        Thermomicrobium,
        Thermus,
        Variovorax,
        Volcaniella,
        Weeksella,
        Xanthobacter,
        Xylella,
        Xylophilus,
        Zoogloea.

    • Pseudomonadaceae:

      Azotobacteriaceae:

      Rhizobiaceae:

      Methylococcaceae:

      Acetobacteraceae:

      Halobacteriaceae:

      Legionellaceae:

      Neisseriaceae:

      Other Genera:

  • Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci:

      • Arsenophonus,
        Budvicia,
        Buttiauxella,
        Cedecea,
        Citrobacter,
        Edwardsiella,
        Enterobacter,
        Erwinia,
        Escherichia,
        Ewingella,
        Hafnia,
        Klebsiella,
        Kluyvera,
        Leclercia,
        Leminorella,
        Moellerella,
        Morganella,
        Obesumbacterium,
        Pantoea,
        Pragia,
        Proteus,
        Providencia,
        Rahnella,
        Salmonella,
        Serratia,
        Shigella,
        Tatumella,
        Xenorhabdus,
        Yersinia,
        Yokenella.

        Aeromonas,
        Enhydrobacter,
        Photobacterium,
        Plesiomonas,
        Vibrio.

        Actinobacillus,
        Haemophilus,
        Pasteurella.

        Calymmatobacterium,
        Cardiobacterium,
        Cedecea,
        Eikenella,
        Gardnerella
        (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

        Kluyvera,
        Obesumbacterium,
        Rahnella,
        Streptobacillus,
        Tatumella,
        Xenorhabdus,

        Chromobacterium,
        Zymomonas,

    • Enterobacteriaceae:

      Vibrionaceae:

      Pasturellaceae:

      Other Genera:

  • Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods:

      • Acetivibrio,
        Acetoanaerobium,
        Acetofilamentum,
        Acetogenium,
        Acetomicrobium,
        Acetothermus,
        Acidaminobacter,
        Anaerobiospirillum,
        Anaerorhabdus,
        Anaerovibrio,
        Bacteroides,
        Butyrivibrio
        (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

        Centipeda,
        Fervidobacterium,
        Fibrobacter,
        Fusobacterium,
        Haloanaerobium,
        Halobacteroides,
        Ilyobacter,
        Lachnospira
        (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

        Leptotrichia,
        Malonomonas,
        Megamonas,
        Mitsuokella,
        Oxalobacter,
        Pectinatus,
        Pelobacter,
        Porphyromonas,
        Prevotella,
        Propionigenium,
        Propionispira,
        Rikenella,
        Roseburia,
        Ruminobacter,
        Sebaldella,
        Selenomonas,
        Sporomusa,
        Succinimonas,
        Succinivibrio,
        Syntrophobacter,
        Syntrophosmonas,
        Thermobacteroides,
        Thermospipho,
        Thermotoga,
        Tissierella,
        Wolinella,
        Zymophilus.

        Desulfobacter,
        Desulfobacterium,
        Desulfobulbus,
        Desulfococcus,
        Desulfomicrobium,
        Desulfomonas,
        Desulfomonile,
        Desulfonema,
        Desulfosarcina,
        Desulfotomaculum
        (also endospore-forming),

        Desulfovibrio,
        Desulfurella,
        Desulfuromonas,
        Thermodesulfobacterium.

        • Acidaminococcus,
          Megasphaera,
          Syntrophococcus,
          Veillonella.

      • Veillonellaceae:

    • Bacteroidaceae:

      Dissimulatory Sulfate- or Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria:

      Anaerobic Gram-Negaitve Cocci:

  • Gram-Negative Anaerobic, Straight, Curved, and Helical Rods:

        • Cowdria,
          Coxiella,
          Ehrlichia,
          Neorickettsia,
          Rickettsia,
          Rickettsiella,
          Rochalimaea,
          Wolbachia,

          Bartonella,
          Grahamella.

          Aegyptianella,
          Anaplasma,
          Eperythrozoon,
          Haemobartonella.

      • Rickettsiaceae:

        Bartonellaceae:

        Anaplasmataceae:

        • Chlamydia.

      • Chlamydiaceae:

    • Rickettsiales:

      Chlamydiales:

  • Rickettsias and Chlamydias:

      • Mycoplasma,
        Ureaplasma.

        Acholeplasma.

        Spiroplasma.

        Anaeroplasma,
        Asteroleplasma,
        Thermoplasma.

    • Mycoplasmataceae:

      Acholeplasmataceae:

      Spiroplasmataceae:

      Other Genera:

  • Mycoplasmas:

      • Caedibacter,
        Holospora,
        Lyticum,
        Pseudocaedibacter,
        Tectibacter,

        Blattabacterium.

        Caedibacter,
        Holospora,
        Lyticum,
        Pseudocaedibacter,
        Tectibacter.

    • Endosymbionts of Protozoa:

      Endosymbionts of Insects (blood sucking, plant sap-sucking, cellulose and stored grain feeders, and insects feeding on complex diets):

      Endosymbionts of Fungi and Invertebrates other than Arthropods (Fungi, Sponges, Coelenterates, Helminthes, Annelids, Marine worms and mollusks)
      Endosymbionts of Protozoa, ciliates, flagellates, and amoebas:

  • Endosymbionts:

      • Deinobacter,
        Deinococcus,
        Marinococcus,
        Micrococcus,
        Planococcus,
        Saccharococcus,
        Staphylococcus,
        Stomatococcus.

        Aerococcus,

        Enterococcus,
        Gemella,
        Lactococcus,
        Leuconostoc,
        Melissococcus,
        Pediococcus,
        Streptococcus
        (Pyogenic Hemolytic Streptococci, Oral Streptococci, Enterococci, Lactic Acid Streptococci, Anaerobic Streptococci),

        Trichococcus,
        Vagococcus.

        Coprococcus,
        Peptococcus,
        Peptostreptococcus,
        Ruminococcus,
        Sarcina.

    • Aerobic, Catalase-Positive Genera:

      Aerotolerant, Catalase-Negative Genera:

      Anaerobic, Catalase-Negative Genera:

  • Gram-Positive Cocci:

      • Amphibacillus,
        Bacillus,
        Clostridium,
        Desulfotomaculum
        (also dissimilatory sulfate reducer),

        Oscillospira,
        Sporolactobacillus,
        Sporosarcina,
        Sulfidobacillus,
        Syntrophospora.

  • Endospore-Forming Gram-Positive Rods and Cocci:

      • Brochothrix,
        Carnobacterium,
        Caryophanon,
        Erysipelothrix,
        Kurthia,
        Lactobacillus,
        Listeria,
        Renibacterium,

  • Regular, Nonsporing Gram-Positive Rods:

      • Acetobacterium,
        Acetogenium,
        Actinomyces,
        Aeromicrobium,
        Agromyces,
        Arachnia,
        Arcanobacterium,
        Arthrobacter,
        Aureobacterium,
        Bifidobacterium,
        Brachybacterium,
        Brevibacterium,
        Butyrivibrio
        (has thin, gram-positive walls, but stains as negative),

        Caseobacter,
        Cellulomonas,
        Clavibacter,
        Coriobacterium,
        Corynebacterium,
        Curtobacterium,
        Dermabacter,
        Eubacterium,
        Exigouibacterium,
        Falcivibrio,
        Gardnerella
        (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

        Jonesia,
        Lachnospira
        (has thin, gram-positive walls but stains as negative),

        Microbacterium,
        Mobiluncus,
        Pimelobacter,
        Propionibacterium,
        Rarobacter,
        Rothia,
        Rubrobacter,
        Sphaerobacter,
        Terrabacter,
        Thermoanaerobacter.

  • Irregular, Nonsporing Gram-Positive Rods:

      • Mycobacterium.

    • Mycobacteriaceae:

  • Mycobacteria:

      • Intrasporangium,
        Micropolyspora,
        Nocardia,
        Nocardioides,
        Oerskovia,
        Promicromonospora,
        Pseudonocardia,
        Rhodococcus,
        Saccharopolyspora.

  • Nocardioforms:

        • Amoebobacter,
          Chromatium,
          Lamprobacter,
          Lamprocystis,
          Thiocapsa,
          Thiocystis,
          Thiodictyon,
          Thiopedia,
          Thiospirillum.

      • Chromatiaceae:

        • Ectothiorhodopsin,
          Ectothiorhodospira.

      • Ectothiorhodospiraceae:

    • Purple Sulfur Bacteria: Internal Sulfur Granules:

      Purple Sulfur Bacteria: External Sulfur Granules:

      Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria:

  • Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria:

        • Rhodobacter,
          Rhodyclus,
          Rhodomicrobium,
          Rhodopila,
          Rhodopseudomonas,
          Rhodospirillum.

    • Green Nonsulfur Bacteria:

        • Heliobacillus,
          Heliobacterium.

    • Green Sulfur Bacteria:

        • Anacalochloris,
          Chlorobium,
          Chloroherpeton,
          Pelodictyon,
          Prosthecochloris.

    • Multicellular Filamentous Green Bacteria:

        • Chloroflexus,
          Chloronema,
          Heliothrix,
          Oscillochloris.

    • Anaerobic Chemotrophic Bacteria:

        • Erythrobacter.

        • Chamaespiphon,
          Cyanothece,
          Gloeobacter,
          Gloeocapsa,
          Gloethece,
          Microcystis,
          Myxobaktron,
          Synechococcus,
          Synechocystis.

          Chroococcidiopsis,
          Dermocarpa,
          Dermocarpella,
          Myxosarcina,
          Pleurocapsa,
          Xenococcus.

          Arthrospira,
          Crinalium,
          Lyngbya,
          Microcoleus,
          Oscillatoria,
          Pseudanabaena,
          Spirulina,
          Starria,
          Trichodesmium.

          • Anabaena,
            Aphanizomenon,
            Cylindrospermum,
            Nodularia,
            Nostoc.

            Scytonema.

            Calothrix.

        • Nostocaceae:

          Scytonemataceae:

          Rivulariaceae:

          Chlorogloeopsis,
          Fischerella,
          Geitleria,
          Stigonema.

          • Prochloron Prochlorothrix.

        • Prochloraceae:

      • Chroococcales:

        Pleurocapsales:

        Oscillatoriales:

        Nostocales:

        Stigonematales:

        Prochlorales:

    • Cyanobacteria:

  • Oxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria:

      • Nitrobacteraceae:

    • Nitrifying Bacteria:

      Nitrate-oxidizing bacteria:

  • Aerobic Chemolithotrophic Bacteria and Associated Organisms:

        • Nitrobacter,
          Nitrococcus,
          Nitrospina,
          Nitrospira.

    • Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria:

        • Nitrosococcus,
          Nitrosolobus,
          Nitrosomonas,
          Nitrosospira,
          Nitrosovibrio.

    • Colorless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria:

        • Acidiphilium,
          Macromonas,
          Thermothrix,
          Thiobacillus,
          Thiobacterium,
          Thiodendron,
          Thiomicrospira,
          Thiosphaera,
          Thiospira,
          Thiovulum.

    • Obligate Chemolithotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria:

        • Hydrogenobacter,

        • Aquaspirillum,
          Bilophococcus,
          Gallionella
          (both iron-oxidizing and appendaged),

          Leptospirillum,
          Metallogenium,
          Naumaniella,
          Ochrobium,
          Siderocapsa,
          Siderococcus,
          Sulfobacillus.

      • Siderocapsaceae:

    • Iron- and Manganese-oxidizing and/or -Depositing Bacteria:

        • Ancalomicrobium *,

          Asticcacaulus,
          Caulobacter,
          Dichotomicrobium,
          Filomicrobium,
          Hirschia,
          Hyphomicrobium *,

          Hyphomonas *,

          Labrys *,

          Pedomicrobium *,

          Prosthecobacter,
          Prosthecomicrobium *,

          Stella *,

          Verrucomicrobium.

          Gemmata,
          Pirelulla.

      • Planctomycetales:

    • Prosthecate Bacteria:

      Nonprosthecate Budding Bacteria:

  • Budding (indicated by *) and/or Appendaged Bacteria:

        • Angulomicrobium,
          Blastobacter,
          Ensifer,
          Gemmiger,
          Isosphaera,
          Planctomyces.

      • Asticcacaulis,
        Caulobacter,
        Gallionella,
        Nevskia,
        Prosthecobacter.

  • Nonbudding Bacteria:

      • Caulococcus,
        Kuznezovia,
        Metallogenium,
        Seliberia,
        Thiodendron.

  • Morphologically Unusual Budding Bacteria (involved in iron and manganese deposition):

      • Clonothrix,
        Crenothrix,
        Haliscominobacter,
        Leptothrix,
        Lieskeela,
        Phragmidiothrix,
        Sphaerotilus.

  • Sheathed Bacteria:

          • Capnocytophaga,
            Chitinophaga,
            Cytophaga,
            Flexibacter,
            Flexithrix,
            Microscilla,
            Sporocytophaga,
            Thermonema.

        • Cytophagaceae:

          • Lysobacter.

        • Lysobacteriaceae:

      • Cytophagales:

        Lysobacterales:

        • Alysiella,
          Simonsiella.

      • Simonsiellaceae:

          • Achromatium,
            Beggiatoa,
            Thioploca,
            Thiospirillopsis,
            Thiothrix.

        • Beggiatoaceae:

      • Beggiatoales:

        • Achroonema,

          Desmanthus,
          Pelonema,
          Peloploca.

          Agitococcus,
          Desulfonema,
          Herpetosiphon,
          Isosphaera,
          Leucothrix,
          Saprospira,
          Toxothrix,
          Vitreoscilla.

      • Pelonemataceae:

        Other Genera:

    • Single-celled, Rod-shaped Gliding Bacteria:

      Flattened, Filamentous Gliding Bacteria:

      Sulfur-Oxidizing Gliding Bacteria:

      The Pelonemas:

  • Nonphotosynthetic, Nonfruiting Gliding Bacteria:

        • Archangium.

          Cystobacter,
          Melittangium,
          Stigmatella.

      • Archangiaceae:

        Cystobacteraceae:

        • Myxococcus.

          Chondromyces,
          Nannocystis,
          Polyangium.

          Angiococcus,
          Corallococcus,
          Haploangium,
          Sorangium.

      • Myxococcaceae:

        Polyangiaceae:

        Other Genera:

    • Myxococcales:

  • Gliding, Fruiting Bacteria:

Archaeobacteria (an older term for the Archaea):

          • Methanobacterium,
            Methanobrevibacter.

            Methanothermus.

        • Methanobacteriaceae:

          Methanothermaceae:

      • Methanobacteriales:

          • Methanococcus.

            Methanolacinia,
            Methanococcoides,
            Methanolobus,
            Methanothrix.

        • Methanococcaceae:

          Methanosarcinaceae:

          • Methanomicrobium,
            Methanogenium,
            Methanospirillum.

            Methanoplanus.

            Methanocorpusculum,
            Methanoculleus,
            Methanohalobium,
            Methanohalophilus,
            Methanosarcina,
            Methanosphaera.

        • Methanomicrobiaceae:

          Methanoplanaceae:

          Other Genera:

      • Methanococcales:

        Methanomicrobiales:

    • Cell Walls With Pseudomurein:

      Cell Walls Without Pseudomurein:

  • The Methanogens:

        • Archaeoglobus.

      • Archaeoglobaceae:

    • Archaeoglobales:

  • Archaeal Sulfate Reducers:

        • Haloarcula,
          Halobacterium,
          Halococcus,
          Haloferax,
          Natronobacterium,
          Natronococcus.

      • Halobacteriaceae:

    • Halobacteriales:

  • Extremely Halophilic, Aerobic Archaeobacteria:

        • Thermoplasma.

  • Cell Wall-Less Archaeobacteria:

          • Desulfurolobus,

            Metallosphaera,

          • Acidianus,
            Sulfolobus.

        • Sulfolobaceae:

      • Sulfolobales:

    • Cocci, Optimum Growth Below pH4:

      Rods That Use H2 as Energy Source:

  • Extremely Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic So – Metabolizers:

          • Pyrobaculum.

          • Thermofilum,
            Thermoproteus.

        • Thermoproteaceae:

      • Thermoproteales:

    • Cocci or Disc-Shaped That Oxidize H2S:

          • Desulfurococcus,
            Pyrodictium.

        • Hyperthermus,
          Staphylothermus,
          Thermodiscus.

          Desulfurococcaceae:

          • Thermococcus,
            Pyrococcus.

        • Thermococcaceae:

      • Thermococcales:

Actinomycetes:

      • Actinobispora,
        Actinokineospora,
        Actinopolyspora,
        Amycolata,
        Amycolatopsis,
        Faenia (Micropolyspora),

        Gordona,
        Intrasporangium,
        Jonesia,
        Kibdelosporangium,
        Nocardia,
        Nocardioides,
        Oerskovia,
        Promicromonospora,
        Pseudoamycolata,
        Pseudonocardia,
        Rhodococcus,
        Saccharomonospora,
        Saccharopolyspora,
        Terrabacter,
        Tsukamurella.

  • Nocardioform Actinomycetes:

      • Dermatophilus,
        Frankia,
        Geodermatophilus.

  • Actinomycetes With Multilocar Sporangia:

      • Actinoplanes,
        Ampullariella,
        Catelbatospora,
        Dactylosporangium,
        Micromonospora,
        Pilimelia.

  • Actinoplanetes:

      • Intrasporangium,
        Kineosporia,
        Sporichthya,
        Streptomyces,
        Streptoverticillium.

  • Streptomyces and Related Genera:

      • Actinomadura,
        Microbispora,
        Microtetraspora,
        Planobispora,
        Planomonospora,
        Spirillospora,
        Streptosporangium.

  • Maduromycetes:

      • Actinosynnema,
        Nocardiopsis,
        Streptoalloteichus,
        Thermomonospora.

  • Thermomonospora and Related Genera:

      • Thermoactinomyces.

  • Thermoactinomycetes:

      • Glycomyces,
        Kibdelosporangium,
        Kitasatosporia,
        Saccarothrix.

  • Other Actinomycete Genera: